The theology of the Logos has for its object a knowledge of the God Logos before He became a man, that is, when He was without the human nature acquired in the process of time. It is our purpose to know Him scientifically with respect to all the attributes of His divine essence and nature, and with respect to all the.relations that He bears to God, the world, and man. Accordingly, it first examines the being of His substance and essence, then all the attributes of His essence that compose His divine nature in their natural sequence and order. After the Logos has been cognized as He is together with all the attributes, He can be understood afterward as He is related to the other beings. In accordance with this order, then, let us begin first with the examination of the entity of the substance of the Logos, and with the first question concerning Him.
The Being of the Logos And the First Question Concerning Him
The first question concerning the entity of the Logos asks whether the entity of the Logos is temporal or timeless, everlasting, and eternal. For the entity of beings is distinguished into temporal and timeless, by which latter term we mean everlasting and eternal. All things that occur in time have temporal being, coming as they do out of non-being into being by generation or origination; on the other hand, the eternally existent God has timeless and eternal and everlasting entity and is incapable of temporal origination. The entity of beings being distinguished into temporal and timeless (or eternal and everlasting), it is with good reason that we have to seek to find out which of these two opposite characters we ought to ascribe to the entity of the Logos. The question is whether the entity of the Logos is temporal or timeless, as is the entity of God. To this question the Holy Spirit through the mouth of the Evangelist John replies, saying: “In the beginning was the Word (Logos).” And from the mouth of Christ we hear: “Before Abraham was, I am” and “I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.” These words, words of truth, testify that the entity of the Logos is eternal, and has no beginning in time: that the Logos has always existed, and was not brought into being out of nothing, or non-entity, like angels and men and other beings. Eternalness is what distinguishes the entity of the Logos from the essence and nature of creatures produced in time, and places the Logos above all together with the eternalness of God, according to the word of the Evangelist Theologian, “and the Word (or Logos) was with God, and the Word (Logos) was God.” If the Logos, or Word, ascribes to His own substance and essence divine eternalness, it is evident that He excludes time from it, and generation from non-entity into entity such as is ascribed to all temporal beings.
As the Logos declares Himself as to His substance, and as His Spirit, the Holy Spirit, who speaks through the prophets and apostles of Christ, also declares Himself and testifies, so are all who listen to His word, all rational and philosophical and truthful men, obliged to think, believe, and confess; for there is not and cannot be another source and origin of truth than the Logos and His Spirit, the two trustworthy witnesses of all truth. Those who are opposed in thought to the Logos and His Spirit, and adversely cognize and judge concerning Him; those who ascribe time to His substance and exclude eternalness; those who say “the time was when the Logos was not, and He was produced out of non-being” – all such persons have obviously been led astray by the spirit of falsehood and blasphemy, and have become blind tools of the Devil to traduce and slander the divinity and eternity of the Logos. These are all called Arians from the founder of this blasphemous heresy, Arius, whom the first Ecumenical Synod of 318 godly Fathers, which assembled in Nicea under Constantine the Great, justly anathematized and condemned, and deprived his adherents of communication with the faithful; on the ground that those who traduce and slander the divinity and eternity of the Logos are seed of the Devil, unworthy of the communion and kingdom of the Logos, but worthy of the communion of the Devil and of the fire of hell everlasting, which has been prepared for him and his angels. The Philosophy of the Logos confirms and ratifies this condemnation as trne and just, because it proves the opinion of Arius to be false, insulting, and blasphemous, and the dogma of that holy Synod rational and redemptive o! the whole Christian community and Church. For, if the false opinion of Arius were believed by all and prevailed, the foundation of the Church would, of course, be overthrown, and the whole edifice together with the foundation would crumble and vanish.
But falsehood could not possibly overcome truth, even though for a long time it threw the truth into the shade and led astray many fools into perdition, and terribly shook the Church as a whole. Those who valorously fought in behalf of the truth were honored and glorified as bright stars of the mental firmament, saviors of themselves and of others from the danger of this wrong belief. Now the philosophical and scientific solution of the question of the eternity of the Logos comes forward to confirm the dogmatical, which is thereby still more strengthened and established, and by both the enemy of truth is more strongly repulsed, and the Church of Orthodox Christians is more firmly built up in these days of disbelief and delusion.
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